Osteoporosis is a condition when bone become weak and can break even from a minor fracture. As a person ages, there is a decrease in bone density, deterioration of bone structure and skeletal weakness will lead to bone fracture.
Now what happens in our body, there are cells called osteoblasts which are responsible for making bone, there are other cells known as osteoclasts which cause the resorption of bone. There is a good balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a healthy adult. During the age 18 to 25, we attain our peak bone mass and as we age the osteoclast activity becomes greater than osteoblast activity which leads to the decrease in bone mass and leads to osteoporosis.
There are various risk factors such as age, gender, family history and prior fractures. Postmenopausal women are at a greater risk of developing osteoporosis due to decline in estrogen levels. In men, hypogonadism(low level of testosterone) is one of the more established risk factors for osteoporosis. Additionally, poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol abuse, smoking, low intake of calcium and vitamin D can cause osteoporosis.
Like muscles bone also become stronger with exercise, bone mass can maintained with exercise programs in adults and elderly and can enervate the bone losses associated with aging.